How would Catherine govern a country with only a centralized empire in mind?

2022-08-01 0 By

Some patriots among the Cossacks now also refer to the Cossacks as Little Russia, but see it as a political body equal to the imperial core they call Greater Russia.”I do not bow to you, but to your Lord.”Sherman Tivovich wrote in his poem “Dialogue between Big Russia and Little Russia”.In this poem, written shortly after Catherine’s accession to the throne, an anthropomorphic little Russia speaks these words to great Russia.”Do not think that you are my master,” Tivovic continued. “Your sovereign is our co-ruler.”This vision of the union of little Russia and Great Russia as a dynastic union can be traced back to the spirit of the Union of Haggage.Yet Catherine ii, whose legitimacy is in question, has no intention of ruling over a political union of privileges and preferential treatment.She had in mind a centralized empire, which would be reasonably divided into administrative units, rather than a Cossack state within a state.Catherine ii recalled the cossacks to St. Petersburg and in the fall of 1764 revoked the Cossack title altogether.It was not only Rosumovsky who was disillusioned, but also many patriots in the Cossacks.The new ruler of the Cossack state (if it can still be called a Cossack state) was General Pyotr Rumyantsev.Rumyantsev, a Russian, held the newly created title of “Viceroy of Little Russia” and commanded the Russian army in the region.He ruled the Cossacks for more than 20 years.Serfdom and the imperial tax postal system were also introduced into the Cossacks during this period.In the early 1780s, he presided over the abolition of the territorial autonomy of the Cossack state and the abolition of the administrative and military system based on the Cossack corps.Cossack units were incorporated into the Imperial standing Army.Under the new administrative system promoted by Catherine II throughout the empire, the Administrative units of the Cossacks were consolidated into three imperial provinces.Catherine ii certainly took her time in turning her idea of an orderly empire into reality.The process of assimilation of the Cossacks lasted almost 20 years, from the abolition of the command title to the administrative integration of the Cossacks into the empire.The transition has taken place in a gradual manner, without provoking new rebellions or producing martyrs for Ukrainian autonomy.The process also benefited from the support of many Cossacks, who saw the empire’s absorption of the Cossacks as a mandate.Many of the cossacks’ institutions and practices seem outdated and unable to meet the challenges of the age of reason.The integration of the empire turned Cossack units into disciplined armies and brought Cossack utilities such as a school system and a formal postal service.Of course, integration also brought serfdom, but few Cossack officers protested, since they were the beneficiaries of serf labor.The Cossack elite dominated Cossack state and Sloboda Ukraine, the surrounding regions of Kharkiv and Sumi, which had been under direct Russian control since the 17th century, but the majority of the population in both regions were peasants.Over the course of the 18th century, these peasants found themselves losing not only their land, but their freedom, the greatest achievement of the Khmelnitsky rebellion.By the second half of the 18th century, nearly 90 percent of the cossacks and more than half of the peasants in Sloboda Ukraine were already living on someone else’s estates.The owners of the estate included the Orthodox Church and Cossack officers, now aristocrats.Catherine II issued a decree in May 1783 forbidding the nearly 300,000 peasants living on the estates of the nobility from leaving their settlements and forcing them to work for their landlords without pay.This was the third wave of serfdom in Ukraine.According to some accounts, there was at least one Cossack who spoke out against serfdom, vasily Kapnister.He was the scion of a poltava family of Cossack officers and wrote the best-known protest poem of Catherine’s time, The Slavery Hymn.Some scholars believe that Kapnister was protesting against the serfization of peasants, others against the abolition of the Cossack state.In fact, both may be targets of his opposition.They happened at about the same time, by the decrees of the same ruler.Kapnister did not hide his disappointment at the consequences of Catherine II’s rule for his homeland.He describes the queen’s treatment of her subjects in verse: “And you oppress them, and bind with chains the hands that pray for you.”Many of Ukraine’s elite spent most of their careers in St. Petersburg, contributing to both Ukrainian and Russian literature and culture.Kapnister was one of those people.His Ode to Slavery entered the Canon of Russian literature.In the time of Peter the Great, Ukrainian priests moved to Russia and joined the imperial church.In Catherine’s time it was descendants of Cossack officers and graduates of the Kiev Academy who poured in.These people are more likely to choose secular careers.Between 1754 and 1768 alone, more than 300 graduates of this high school chose to serve the Empire or go to Russia.Their education made it easy for them to continue their studies abroad and then come back to work for the Empire.There were twice as many Ukrainian doctors as Russian doctors in the entire empire.In the last two decades of the century, more than a third of the students at St. Petersburg’s Teachers’ College came from Cossacks.Catherine II banned Ukrainian priests from joining the Russian church (most Russian bishops were already Ukrainian immigrants when she came to the throne), but the flow of Ukrainians into the imperial civil service and military did not slow down.The new generation of Cossack officers combined their loyalty to the Cossack state with their service to the Empire.The career of Alexander Bezborodko is a case in point.Bezborodko was born in 1747 to a Cossack family of general secretaries and was later educated at the Kiev Academy.Had he been born a few decades earlier, this background would have provided a good foundation for a successful career in the Cossacks.But times have changed.Bezborodko became colonel of the regiment, but his boss was no longer the Cossack commander, but the imperial governor of Little Russia, Pyotr Rumyantsev.The young Bezborodko took part in a war against the Ottomans, demonstrated his courage in many battles, and distinguished himself as head of Rumyantsev’s secretariat.He became colonel in 1774, and the next year he was in St. Petersburg, at the queen’s personal command.The Russo – Turkish war of 1768-74 accelerated Bezborodko’s rise and brought him from the former Cossacks to the imperial capital.Not only the Cossacks, but the whole of Ukraine was greatly affected by the war.The beginning of the war was a rebellion on the Right Bank of Ukraine in the spring of 1768.In fact, there are two rebel at the same time: the first is an uprising, or in the local terms, is (Poland and polish) Catholic aristocratic rebellion “alliance”, is aimed at Poland – Lithuania federal parliament granted religious dissidents, particularly orthodox christians and catholics resolution of equal rights.Catherine forced the resolution through the Catholic representatives in parliament through her envoys, who threatened that he would send in Russian troops to achieve his goal.For Catherine, it was a way of proving that she was qualified to represent Russia and the Orthodox Church.The rebels refused to comply with the parliamentary resolution, interpreting it as a Russian plot to undermine not only their religion but also their national sovereignty.This noble uprising broke out in the Bordorian town of Baar, hence the name “Baar league”.Members of the Baal League hunt down the remaining Orthodox christians in Ukraine on the right bank.This provoked another rebellion among orthodox Cossacks, citizens and peasants.Encouraged by Russian government and church officials, they rebelled against the Catholic aristocracy, stirring fears of a massacre on the scale of 1648, the first year of The Khmelnitsky rebellion.The Zaporoge Cossacks once again joined hands with cossacks who had been at the beck and call of the authorities.The former was led by Maxim Salizniak and the latter by Ivan Gonta.Both Cossack leaders would be heroes in the eyes of Ukrainian populists and later in the Narrative of Soviet history.As in 1648, the victims of the rebellion were Polish nobles, Catholic and United Church priests, and Jews.Conclusion In the 18th century, Jews had returned to Right Bank Ukraine and rebuilt their economic, religious and cultural life.Many of them follow Rabbi Israel Bar Shem Tov.The rabbi taught hasidic teachings in the Podorian city of Mede Ribizi in the 1740s.Catholic rebels wanted a Catholic state free of Russian interference;The Orthodox wanted a Russian Cossack state;Jews want to be left alone.They didn’t get what they wanted.